When diplomacy fails in Victoria 3, it rests upon a nation's armed forces to achieve its geopolitical goals. In Victoria 3, all wars start after a diplomatic play has not been resolved peacefully and escalates to war. However, it is important to remember that mobilizing and deploying military forces during the diplomatic play is important both in projecting strength during the play (increasing the chance of the other side backing down without a war) and winning the war if it does break out.

当一切外交手段最终失败时,国家要实现其地缘政治目标,就需要诉诸武力。在《维多利亚 3》中,所有未能和平解决的外交博弈最终都会升级为战争。一般来说,你应当在外交博弈过程中及时的调动和部署军事力量,展示自身的军事能力,从而增加对方在不发生战争的情况下退让的机会,同时,一旦战争爆发,这些军队能够及时投入战斗,从而获取优势,并最终赢得战争。

An image of the military overview tab
The military overview window (shortcut F5) has tabs for the army, navy and garrisons. These tabs show where generals or admirals are assigned, and which forces haven’t been mobilized and are present as garrisons. Orders can be given to each general and admiral from these tabs.

Military structure 军队组织

Armed forces in Victoria 3 are organised in four ways, and in every case it is important to be mindful of the HQ (there are separate HQs for each strategic region) they relate to:

维多利亚 3 中有四种形式的军队,你应当永远注意你的军队所属的总部(每个战略区域都有单独的总部):

  • Battalions assigned to generals 从属于陆军将领的陆军营
  • Flotillas assigned to admirals 从属于海军将领的舰队
  • Unassigned Battalions 未分配的营
  • Unassigned Flotillas 未分配的海军舰队

For battalions or flotillas to be given orders, they need to be under a general or admiral. Unassigned battalions are still useful, in that they will contribute to the defence of the strategic region in which they’re located, but unassigned flotillas will not take any part in a war. It will generally not make sense to have unassigned flotillas, as they cost upkeep but cannot be used in war. In the vast majority of cases, unassigned flotillas should be allocated to an admiral – the main exception to this are flotillas used purely for generating diplomatic interests.


During a diplomatic play 外交博弈中

Once a diplomatic play has started, potential fronts will appear on the map, and generals can be assigned to these fronts. While it can be the case that there are more fronts than generals, bear in mind the opposing forces will have limited numbers of generals as well, and it is not unusual for peripheral fronts to have no forces assigned on either side. It takes time to move between fronts, and it is worth considering the war goals set during the diplomatic play when assigning generals, as controlling these will become important if war does break out (controlling war goals leads to the other side's war support dropping more quickly).


Mid-way through this diplomatic play by Austria to puppet Wallachia, Russia and Moldavia have both entered in support of Wallachia. There are four potential fronts on the map, and neither side has mobilized any units at this point. Backing down now will mean Austria has to pay war reparations to Wallachia. Even if Austria isn’t strong enough to beat Russia, if Austria can quickly overwhelm Wallachia (such that Wallachia’s war support drops quickly), they may be able to prevail, and assigning its forces appropriately to achieve this goal (while also defending Austrian territory) will be key to the outcome.奥地利试图傀儡瓦拉几亚的外交博弈进行到一半时,俄罗斯和摩尔达维亚都宣告支持瓦拉几亚。此时,地图上有四条潜在的战线,目前双方都没有调动任何部队。现在退缩意味着奥地利必须向瓦拉几亚支付战争赔款。即使奥地利的实力不足以击败俄罗斯,只要奥地利能迅速击垮并占领瓦拉几亚(使瓦拉几亚的战争支持率迅速下降),他们仍旧有可能取得胜利,而合理分配兵力以实现这一目标(同时在俄罗斯进攻下保卫奥地利领土)将是胜负的关键。

Similar to generals, once a diplomatic play has started, admirals can be assigned orders (except for naval invasion, which can’t be assigned until after war has broken out) to different sea nodes. These orders take time to prepare, so there can be value in positioning forces before war breaks out.


Once war breaks out 战争爆发后

Once war breaks out, land warfare occurs along fronts, while naval warfare occurs in sea nodes. On a contested front where both sides have forces, there will be a series of battles, while naval warfare involves battles at each sea node. As would be expected, there are differences in the nature of land and naval warfare:


  • Land warfare is about defending or capturing territory.
  • 陆地作战的目的在于防守或夺取地块
  • Naval warfare is about attacking/protecting convoys (a disrupted supply network has economic costs, and will also impact on the morale of battalions on overseas fronts), invading, and defending against invasion. Note that while the enemy supply network can be disrupted, and invading armies can be blocked, it is not possible to intercept generals and their forces in transit between fronts.
  • 海战的目的在于攻击/护航运输船(破坏对手的补给节点会造成经济影响,同时会影响对手海外营队的士气),海上入侵和防御海上入侵。注意:尽管你可以破坏敌方的补给节点,封锁对方的海上入侵,但你无法阻止对手的营队在前线之间移动。
Austria’s diplomatic play in the example above progressed to war. Austria has taken a defensive posture against Russia while focusing forces against Wallachia, and has captured a significant amount of Wallachian territory, which has meant Wallachia’s war support has fallen further than Austria’s. There are battles in progress in the north and south. As the only war goal Austria is trying to press is against Wallachia, if Austria can occupy Wallachia before the Russians break through in the north, it will win the war and puppet Wallachia.在上述例子中,奥地利的外交博弈最后发展到了战争阶段。奥地利对俄国前线采取防御态势,同时集中兵力对付瓦拉几亚,并占领了大量瓦拉几亚领土,这意味着瓦拉几亚的战争支持度比奥地利下降得更快。北部和南部都在进行战斗。由于奥地利唯一的战争目标是瓦拉几亚,如果奥地利能在俄军突破北部之前占领瓦拉几亚,就能赢得战争并傀儡瓦拉几亚。

As the war develops, both sides' war support will decline, based on a range of factors. There are some conditions that prevent war support from falling below zero, and it is worth being mindful of these, as if one side’s war support falls to -100, they will automatically capitulate and all of the war goals against them will be pressed. It is also possible to negotiate peace with some or none of the war goals pressed before this happens.


Austria’s offensive into Wallachia has successfully occupied most of the country, and Wallachia’s war support has fallen to -60.8. Wallachia sees the situation as hopeless and has proposed a peace deal by which it will become a puppet of Austria. Austria accepting this peace deal will achieve all of its goals in the diplomatic play and end the war.奥地利对瓦拉几亚的攻势迅速占领了该国的大部分地块,在一段时间后,瓦拉几亚的战争支持度降至-60.8.该国领导人认为战争毫无胜利希望,因此提出了和平协议,愿意接受奥地利的外交博弈目标,也即成为傀儡。奥地利接受了该和平提议,实现了其外交博弈目标,战争结束。